0%

鐵人賽系列文章- Day26 - kubelet Plugin 介紹

最後幾天,我們就來介紹一些操作 Kubernetes 上可能會使用到的工具,這些工具對於開發者,對於叢集管理者都可能會有一些便利的好處,畢竟在操作上如果可以用更快的時間做出需要的事情,找出需要的事情,其實整體工作效率會更高

今天要來介紹的 kubectl plugin 的生態,有興趣瞭解更多的可以到 Extend kubectl with plugins 去瞭解更多

架構

Kubectl plugins 的生態非常簡單,基本上就是用一堆執行檔組合再一起即可,只要將該執行檔放到一個你當前系統上 $PATH

可以執行到的位置,並且將該檔案命名為 kubectl- 即可

示範

接下來用一個快速範例來示範,準備一個 kubectl-ithome 的檔案

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
$ cat kubectl-ithome
#!/bin/bash

# optional argument handling
if [[ "$1" == "version" ]]
then
echo "1.0.0"
exit 0
fi

# optional argument handling
if [[ "$1" == "post" ]]
then
echo "day 26"
exit 0
fi

echo "I am a plugin named kubectl-ithome"

接下來將該檔案設定為可執行並且放到一個 $PATH 指向的位置

1
2
3
4
5
6
$ chmod 755 kubectl-ithome
$ sudo mv kubectl-ithome /usr/local/bin/
$ kubectl ithome version
1.0.0
$ kubectl ithome post
day 26

可以看到使用上非常簡單,就是準備一個執行檔案並且設定相關的權限與位置就好

探索

因為其架構非常簡單,所以只要執行 kubectl plugin list,預設情況下會因為沒有安裝任何的東西,執行結果就不會找到任何東西

1
2
3
$ kubectl plugin list
Unable read directory "/home/ubuntu/go/bin" from your PATH: open /home/ubuntu/go/bin: no such file or directory. Skipping...
error: unable to find any kubectl plugins in your PATH

但是如果每次要安裝這些 plugin 都要自己想辦法去找這些執行檔,並且放到系統環境下其實滿累的。

所以這時候我們就可以使用 krew 這套系統來幫忙管理整個 kubectl plugin, 等等就來試試看相關功能

限制

要注意的是因為 kubectl 本身已經有很多子指令可以使用了,因此這些 Plugin 不能覆蓋這些子指令,譬如不能創造一個 kubectl-get 來取代 kubectl get 之類的,不過對於非開發者來說,這些限制可以忽略,專注於如何找尋現存的 plugin 並且使用到日常工作中即可

Krew

Krew 的官方說明如下

Krew is the package manager for kubectl plugins.

Krew is a tool that makes it easy to use kubectl plugins. Krew helps you discover plugins, install and manage them on your machine. It is similar to tools like apt, dnf or brew. Today, over 70 kubectl plugins are available on Krew.

根據說明目前已經超過 70 個以上的 plugin, 因此我們接下來就從中挑幾個有趣的來玩看看

安裝

首先我們要先安裝 Krew, 基本上 Krew 也會變成一個 kubectl plugin ,之後會透過 kubectl krew 來管理

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$ (
set -x; cd "$(mktemp -d)" &&
curl -fsSLO "https://github.com/kubernetes-sigs/krew/releases/latest/download/krew.tar.gz" &&
tar zxvf krew.tar.gz &&
KREW=./krew-"$(uname | tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]')_amd64" &&
"$KREW" install krew
)
$ export PATH="${KREW_ROOT:-$HOME/.krew}/bin:$PATH"
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
$ kubectl krew
krew is the kubectl plugin manager.
You can invoke krew through kubectl: "kubectl krew [command]..."

Usage:
kubectl krew [command]

Available Commands:
help Help about any command
index Manage custom plugin indexes
info Show information about an available plugin
install Install kubectl plugins
list List installed kubectl plugins
search Discover kubectl plugins
uninstall Uninstall plugins
update Update the local copy of the plugin index
upgrade Upgrade installed plugins to newer versions
version Show krew version and diagnostics

Flags:
-h, --help help for krew
-v, --v Level number for the log level verbosity

Use "kubectl krew [command] --help" for more information about a command.

Krew 底下滿多指令的,我們等等會透過 search 來探索全部 plugins 並且透過 install 來安裝

使用

搜尋上非常簡單,透過 kubectl krew search 去列出目前

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
$ kubectl krew search
NAME DESCRIPTION INSTALLED
access-matrix Show an RBAC access matrix for server resources no
advise-psp Suggests PodSecurityPolicies for cluster. no
apparmor-manager Manage AppArmor profiles for cluster. no
auth-proxy Authentication proxy to a pod or service no
bd-xray Run Black Duck Image Scans no
bulk-action Do bulk actions on Kubernetes resources. no
ca-cert Print the PEM CA certificate of the current clu... no
capture Triggers a Sysdig capture to troubleshoot the r... no
cert-manager Manage cert-manager resources inside your cluster no
change-ns View or change the current namespace via kubectl. no
cilium Easily interact with Cilium agents. no
cluster-group Exec commands across a group of contexts. no
config-cleanup Automatically clean up your kubeconfig no
cssh SSH into Kubernetes nodes no
ctx Switch between contexts in your kubeconfig no
custom-cols A "kubectl get" replacement with customizable c... no
datadog Manage the Datadog Operator no
debug Attach ephemeral debug container to running pod no
debug-shell Create pod with interactive kube-shell. no
deprecations Checks for deprecated objects in a cluster no
df-pv Show disk usage (like unix df) for persistent v... no
doctor Scans your cluster and reports anomalies. no
duck List custom resources with ducktype support no
edit-status Edit /status subresources of CRs no
eksporter Export resources and removes a pre-defined set ... no
emit-event Emit Kubernetes Events for the requested object no
evict-pod Evicts the given pod no
example Prints out example manifest YAMLs no
exec-as Like kubectl exec, but offers a `user` flag to ... no
exec-cronjob Run a CronJob immediately as Job no
fields Grep resources hierarchy by field name no
flame Generate CPU flame graphs from pods no
fleet Shows config and resources of a fleet of clusters no
fuzzy Fuzzy and partial string search for kubectl no
gadget Gadgets for debugging and introspecting apps no
get-all Like `kubectl get all` but _really_ everything no
gke-credentials Fetch credentials for GKE clusters no
gopass Imports secrets from gopass no
graph Visualize Kubernetes resources and relationships. no
grep Filter Kubernetes resources by matching their n... no
gs Handle custom resources with Giant Swarm no
iexec Interactive selection tool for `kubectl exec` no
images Show container images used in the cluster. no
ingress-nginx Interact with ingress-nginx no
ipick A kubectl wrapper for interactive resource sele... no
konfig Merge, split or import kubeconfig files no
krew Package manager for kubectl plugins. yes
kubesec-scan Scan Kubernetes resources with kubesec.io. no
kudo Declaratively build, install, and run operators... no
kuttl Declaratively run and test operators no
kyverno Kyverno is a policy engine for kubernetes no
match-name Match names of pods and other API objects no
modify-secret modify secret with implicit base64 translations no
mtail Tail logs from multiple pods matching label sel... no
neat Remove clutter from Kubernetes manifests to mak... no
net-forward Proxy to arbitrary TCP services on a cluster ne... no
node-admin List nodes and run privileged pod with chroot no
node-restart Restart cluster nodes sequentially and gracefully no
node-shell Spawn a root shell on a node via kubectl no
np-viewer Network Policies rules viewer no
ns Switch between Kubernetes namespaces no
oidc-login Log in to the OpenID Connect provider no
open-svc Open the Kubernetes URL(s) for the specified se... no
operator Manage operators with Operator Lifecycle Manager no
oulogin Login to a cluster via OpenUnison no
outdated Finds outdated container images running in a cl... no
passman Store kubeconfig credentials in keychains or pa... no
pod-dive Shows a pod's workload tree and info inside a node no
pod-logs Display a list of pods to get logs from no
pod-shell Display a list of pods to execute a shell in no
podevents Show events for pods no
popeye Scans your clusters for potential resource issues no
preflight Executes application preflight tests in a cluster no
profefe Gather and manage pprof profiles from running pods no
prompt Prompts for user confirmation when executing co... no
prune-unused Prune unused resources no
psp-util Manage Pod Security Policy(PSP) and the related... no
rbac-lookup Reverse lookup for RBAC no
rbac-view A tool to visualize your RBAC permissions. no
resource-capacity Provides an overview of resource requests, limi... no
resource-snapshot Prints a snapshot of nodes, pods and HPAs resou... no
restart Restarts a pod with the given name no
rm-standalone-pods Remove all pods without owner references no
rolesum Summarize RBAC roles for subjects no
roll Rolling restart of all persistent pods in a nam... no
schemahero Declarative database schema migrations via YAML no
score Kubernetes static code analysis. no
service-tree Status for ingresses, services, and their backends no
sick-pods Find and debug Pods that are "Not Ready" no
snap Delete half of the pods in a namespace or cluster no
sniff Start a remote packet capture on pods using tcp... no
sort-manifests Sort manifest files in a proper order by Kind no
split-yaml Split YAML output into one file per resource. no
spy pod debugging tool for kubernetes clusters with... no
sql Query the cluster via pseudo-SQL no
ssh-jump A kubectl plugin to SSH into Kubernetes nodes u... no
sshd Run SSH server in a Pod no
ssm-secret Import/export secrets from/to AWS SSM param store no
starboard Toolkit for finding risks in kubernetes resources no
status Show status details of a given resource. no
sudo Run Kubernetes commands impersonated as group s... no
support-bundle Creates support bundles for off-cluster analysis no
tail Stream logs from multiple pods and containers u... no
tap Interactively proxy Kubernetes Services with ease no
tmux-exec An exec multiplexer using Tmux no
topology Explore region topology for nodes or pods no
trace bpftrace programs in a cluster no
tree Show a tree of object hierarchies through owner... no
unused-volumes List unused PVCs no
view-allocations List allocations per resources, nodes, pods. no
view-secret Decode Kubernetes secrets no
view-serviceaccount-kubeconfig Show a kubeconfig setting to access the apiserv... no
view-utilization Shows cluster cpu and memory utilization no
virt Control KubeVirt virtual machines using virtctl no
warp Sync and execute local files in Pod no
who-can Shows who has RBAC permissions to access Kubern... no
whoami Show the subject that's currently authenticated... no

如果覺得上面資訊太多,也可以傳遞第二個參數來過濾,譬如

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
$ kubectl krew search pod
NAME DESCRIPTION INSTALLED
evict-pod Evicts the given pod no
pod-dive Shows a pod's workload tree and info inside a node no
pod-logs Display a list of pods to get logs from no
pod-shell Display a list of pods to execute a shell in no
podevents Show events for pods no
rm-standalone-pods Remove all pods without owner references no
sick-pods Find and debug Pods that are "Not Ready" no
support-bundle Creates support bundles for off-cluster analysis no

下一篇我們就來從中挑選一些有趣的 plugin 玩看看

個人資訊

我目前於 Hiskio 平台上面有開設 Kubernetes 相關課程,歡迎有興趣的人參考並分享,裡面有我從底層到實戰中對於 Kubernetes 的各種想法

詳細可以參閱
矽谷年線上學院
https://course.hwchiu.com

另外,歡迎按讚加入我個人的粉絲專頁,裡面會定期分享各式各樣的文章,有的是翻譯文章,也有部分是原創文章,主要會聚焦於 CNCF 領域
https://www.facebook.com/technologynoteniu

如果有使用 Telegram 的也可以訂閱下列頻道來,裡面我會定期推播通知各類文章
https://t.me/technologynote

你的捐款將給予我文章成長的動力

Welcome to my other publishing channels